Stone Fruits

Stone Fruits

Fruit trees are those capable of producing fruit, which are technically the ovule of the matured flower with seeds inside. Fruit trees include the group known as stone fruit trees, technically known as drupes. They produce a fleshy fruit whose seeds are inside a hard stone. This category includes crops of the genus Prunus such as peaches, plums, apricots, cherries, almonds…

In general, applications of nutritional elements to stone fruit trees vary depending on the crop’s, stage of development: whether it be the formation stage when the tree is still growing or the production stage, within which there is also a variation depending on the stage of the campaign.

Macronutrients in stone fruits


Nitrogen is considered to be a macronutrient par excellence. A decent supply of it is therefore vital to cultivation of stone fruit trees. It forms a part of proteins and amino acids. In turn, it also forms a part of the cellular structure. It is necessary for the synthesis and transfer of energy. It is also an essential component of chlorophyll.


Phosphorus is one of the main mineral macronutrients needed by the plant for proper growth and production. It is directly involved in obtaining, storing and using energy obtained through photosynthesis. In addition, it allows for the proper maturation of the plant, with effective growth and better development of both roots and flowers. It also helps the plant withstand low temperature conditions and even fight disease.


Potassium is another main element needed by plants for their proper development. It is an active part of photosynthesis, as it is involved in the capture of atmospheric CO2 and in the formation of sugars. It also acts on the mobilisation of nutrients and promotes growth by acting on the enzymes involved.

It is indispensable for the absorption of water via the roots and transpiration, acting on the water management of the plant. In addition, it is also part of the vegetable protein formation process. For this reason, a correct intake of this nutrient also increases the amount of protein in the fruit.


Calcium has a crucial effect on plants. It is responsible for the formation and maintenance of the plant cell wall, promoting and improving all vegetative development of the crop. In addition, it acts as a cofactor for a large amount of enzymes, which makes it important for the metabolism and nutrition of the plant as well. It also plays a part in stomata regulation, improving crop water management. Apart from these effects, calcium also improves soil structure, improving the nutritional conditions of the crop by improving the bioavailability of nutrients.

A calcium deficiency may manifest in the crop as amorphous or unusual growth of new leaves. Other signs can include incorrectly formed cell wall stems, or even blossom-end rotting of the fruits.

Micronutrients in stone fruits


Zinc is essential to proper crop growth. It plays a part in the synthesis of enzymes necessary for the assimilation and degradation of sugars. It is also involved in the synthesis of certain hormones that intervene in the growth of the plant. In addition, it improves the crop’s resistance to low temperatures.

Crops with Zn deficiencies have small leaves with localised intervenal and apical burns. Other signs can include leaves in rosette formations, due to shortening of inter-foliate spaces.

Tests have confirmed that for effective treatment, at least 2 foliar applications should be administered to the wood, prior to flowering and shortly before budding, to compensate for these deficiencies and ensure optimal development and production.


Manganese is essential for correct crop growth, as it acts as an indispensable mediator in processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen assimilation and root lengthening, and even plays a part in resistance against certain pathogens.

A manganese deficiency will manifest itself in the crop by a slight intervenal chlorosis in the youngest leaves and dark sagging in the same area, as well as a clear reduction in growth of the plant and leaves.

Tests have confirmed that for effective treatment, at least 2 foliar applications should be administered to the wood, prior to flowering and shortly before budding, to compensate for these deficiencies and ensure optimal development and production.


Iron is essential for correct growth of a culture, since it is present in many enzymes and pigments which are indispensable for proper plant development.

Crops with Fe deficiencies present completely yellow leaves, due to their chlorophyll deficiency, with consequent loss of photosynthetic capacity.

Tests have confirmed that for effective treatment, at least 2 foliar applications should be administered prior to flowering.


Copper is essential for proper crop growth, as it acts as an intermediary in many enzymatic processes such as the action of chlorophyll, and is also indispensable for proper growth on account of its action as part of the assimilation and production of carbohydrates and proteins.

A copper deficiency may manifest itself in a crop as a slight intervenal chlorosis in the newest leaves. These lose photosynthetic capacity, and at the same time, a degeneration of the apical meristems takes place, preventing the branching and proper development of the plant.


Boron, together with calcium, is involved in the correct formation of cell walls and cell division. It is especially important in the flowering and pollination seasons for proper reproductive development. Therefore, it facilitates effective production in a crop.

A boron deficiency may manifest itself in stone fruit tree crops as deterioration of the growth points of the leaves, roots and flowering and fruiting structures. This results in deformed growth of the leaves, as well as “rosette” formations of the same caused by necrosis of the apical meristems.

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